White certificates – certificates confirming a specific volume of energy savings as a result of investments to make energy efficiency gains.

CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) – technology used to capture, transport and geologically store carbon dioxide.

Network heat – hot water produced in co-generation with electricity. Heat flowing through the installations is used for district heating and hot water supply needs.

Waste free power plants and coal mines – power plants and coal mines that do not generate waste (e.g. combustion by-products) or whose waste is converted into other useful products (e.g. gravel) used in other industries (e.g. construction).

Electricity generation by prosumers – electricity generation, primarily for own needs, on a small scale, from installations that use renewable energy sources. Households and enterprises doing this are called prosumers, i.e. they simultaneously act as electricity producers and consumers.

Primary Power Supply Substations (GPZ) – transformer stations converting high or medium voltage into low voltage: 230 V. They supply electricity to one or several cities; they are usually located outside an urban area. Overhead high voltage (HV), e.g. 110 kV (110 thousand volts), or medium voltage (MV) 15 kV (15 thousand volts) lines are connected to substations. Transformers (devices transforming electricity) are used in these substations to convert high or medium voltage into low voltage (LV) of 230V that is distributed and brought to our homes via underground cables.

Smart metering – a comprehensive integrated IT system comprising smart energy metres in customer premises, telecommunications infrastructure and a central database and management system. Smart measurement systems enable bi-directional communications in real time between IT systems and electronic energy meters installed in customer premises. Furthermore, they can automate the entire billing process for electricity consumers – from obtaining measurement data, to its processing and aggregation, to invoice issuing.

ISO 14001 – one of the ISO standards applied in natural environment management.

Fluidized bed boiler – a boiler used to generate steam or hot water, equipped with a fluidized bed furnace. Fluidized bed technology enables suspending dispersed fuel in the upward flowing air stream. Such boilers provide very favourable conditions facilitating chemical reactions to generate a lot of heat.

Aggregate – bulk material of organic or mineral origin, used mainly to manufacture mortar and concrete, and road construction.

Best Available Technology (BAT) – most efficient and advanced level of technology and methods of conducting operations. BATs are used in various industries. In the power sector it provides the basis for capping emission levels to eliminate or, if not plausible, reduce emissions and their overall environmental impact.

Vulnerable customer – in accordance with the Energy Law a vulnerable user of electricity is a person awarded a housing subsidy, who is a party to a combined electricity distribution and supply agreement or an electricity supply agreement and who resides at a point of electricity delivery.

Climate package – energy and climate package consisting of six bills to achieve targets to counteract climate changes: „3 x 20” – a directive adopted by the European Union.  Its assumption is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% versus 1990 by 2020, increase the percentage of renewable energy sources in the energy mix by 20% of total energy consumption on average in the EU in 2020 and raise energy efficiency by 2020 by 20%.

Heat pump – mechanism to transport heat at a lower temperature to a place with a higher temperature. This process is possible through the appropriate pump design with a compressor or heat exchanger. The heat pump accumulates heat from air or soil for example, to dissipate it to the environment.

KIC InnoEnergy (Knowledge and Innovation Communities) project – a European commercial project promoting innovation in the power sector. TAURON Polska Energia is one of the signatories of the agreement concluded to establish CC Poland Plus forming the basis for the operation of the Polish KIC Energy node. Its task is primarily to conduct research and coordinate activities in clean hard coal technologies. The formation of the special purpose vehicle called CC Poland Plus is the coronation of cooperation between the TAURON Group and its academic partners. In 2013 the TAURON Group received a Golden Laurel for Innovation in the Mining and Steel Industry category for the “Pilot mobile system used to remove CO2 from flue gase”. This prize is awarded to companies that successfully implemented the best ideas, solutions and inventions leading to their commercial success.

RESPECT Index – index grouping responsible companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Its goal is to group entities managed in a responsible and sustainable manner. Furthermore, it strongly stresses investment attractiveness of companies demonstrating, among others: quality of reporting, level of investor relations and corporate governance.

SAIFI – System Average Interruption Frequency Index calculated by dividing the number of customers affected by all the interruptions in a year by the total number of customers served.

SAIDI – System Average Interruption Duration Index expressed in minutes per customer calculated by dividing the sum of the product of the duration of all customer interruptions and the number of customers affected by all the interruptions in a year by the total number of grid customers served.

Power grid – cables and functionally and electrically connected devices used to transmit, process and distribute the electricity generated by power plants and to power devices in an area. Grids are classified as:

  • a transmission grid, i.e. a high voltage grid and the highest voltage grid
  • a distribution grid, i.e. a medium voltage grid and a low voltage grid.

Mineral sorbents – obtained by dispersing minerals and subjecting them to thermal processing to increase the absorbing surface. Sorbent takes the form of small granules that permeate through accessible slots and absorb liquid from any substrate.

Conventional resources – non-renewable resources and fossil fuels such as hard coal, lignite, peat, crude oil and natural gas. This group also includes nuclear energy in which uranium is the raw material.

EMAS System – the Eco Management and Audit Scheme is an EU instrument aiming to encourage various organisations (enterprises, factories and institutions) to improve their environmental impact continuously. The essence of EMAS is to search for possibilities to mitigate environmental impact and to make efficiency gains.

Smart grid system – power system integrating the operations of all energy market participants to supply energy in a safe, reliable and cost effective manner taking into account environmental protection requirements.

Tauronet – the TAURON Group’s corporate intranet portal, one of its most important tools for communicating with staff members. At the time of publishing this Report, is one of the largest platforms in Poland.

Thermal insulation of industrial facilities – changes to heating and ventilation systems, building structure and hot water installations. The scope of thermal insulation, similar to its technical and economic parameters, is defined in an energy audit. The most frequent actions include additional insulation of outer walls and roofs, replacing windows, replacing and/or upgrading heating systems.

Green energy, renewable energy, eco-energy – energy obtained from renewable energy sources, i.e. from wind, solar radiation and biomass combustion.